Paper presented to Law Institute of Victoria’s Accredited Property Law Specialists can be found here.
Restrictive covenants in Victoria often give development discretion to companies that have long been deregistered. A good example is the series of covenants affecting the area around Altona that may provide:
… nor will I or my heirs executors administrators or transferees use any material other than brick and/or stone for the main walls of any such shop or dwelling house without the consent in writing of the said Altona Beach Estates Limited
Altona Beach Estates Limited, the original developer of the land, has long ceased to exist.
A question is then raised: how will the Australian Securities & Investments Commission (ASIC) exercise its discretion if it is called upon to act in the capacity of the deregistered company pursuant to section 601AE(2) of the Corporations Act 2001?
Helpfully, ASIC has produced a practice note of sorts to explain its policy in relation to such requests.
This policy states that ASIC may consider applications for consent under an encumbrance (e.g. plans of subdivision where there is no specific prohibition to subdivision in the encumbrance; construction of a fence within the restrictions/conditions of the encumbrance) and may consider applications to discharge expired encumbrances. However, ASIC will not otherwise vary the restrictions/conditions of an encumbrance or discharge a current encumbrance.
It is not then, as some might have you believe, a fait accomplis that the discretion will be exercised in the applicant’s favour.
The policy can be found here: http://asic.gov.au/for-business/closing-your-company/effects-of-deregistration/property-of-deregistered-companies/there-is-an-encumbrance-also-known-as-a-covenant-or-restrictive-covenant-over-my-property-in-favour-of-a-deregistered-company/
There is a little known provision in the Planning and Environment Act 1987 (Act) that has been interpreted to allow the modification of a covenant without notice if the covenant has been breached for a period of two years or more. Section 47(2) of the Act provides:
(2) Sections 52 and 55 do not apply to an application for a permit to remove a restriction (within the meaning of the Subdivision Act 1988) over land if the land has been used or developed for more than 2 years before the date of the application in a manner which would have been lawful under this Act but for the existence of the restriction.
Section 52 of the Act deals with advertising of applications for permits to potentially affected third parties and section 55 deals with referral to bodies such as DELWP, Telstra, VicRoads and so on.
In Hill v Campaspe SC  VCAT 1399, the Tribunal explained:
26 My conclusion is that if part of a covenant is breached, and the breach continues for 2 years without any action on the part of those having the benefit of the covenant, it is reasonable that no notice should be given of an application to vary by removal part of the covenant of which there is a breach. But this exemption from notice pursuant to section 47(2) of the Act should not extend to the removal of any aspect of a covenant of which there is no breach.
Although the proper interpretation of this provision is not free from doubt, this decision suggests that if a use or development has been in breach of a covenant for more than two years, a permit can be granted to remove or modify the covenant to regularise the use or development. If you rely on this provision, the relevant responsible authority under the Act should issue the permit to remove or amend the covenant without notifying other beneficiaries. However, as DP Gibson cautions, the power is limited, so any application should be judiciously drafted.
Owen Dixon Chambers
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